Brain Injuries

What should I do, if I or someone I care for suffer a Brain Injury?

Most brain injuries include both primary and secondary injuries. The more severe the initial insult, the more likely the secondary injuries will also be significant. Over half of all reported traumatic brain injuries are the result of an automobile accident. Blunt trauma is a more serious type of head injury that can occur in an automobile accident when a moving head strikes a stationary object like the windshield. When a traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or any type of severe injury in which the occupants of a motor vehicle have sustained serious, debilitating injuries severely affecting their way of life.

What is a Primary Brain Injury?
Primary injuries include the first major injuries. Brain injuries can be classified into mild, moderate, and severe categories. Complications are distinct medical problems that may arise as a result of the TBI.

What is an Intracranial Hematoma?
An intracranial hematoma is a serious, possibly life-threatening, a complication of head trauma. Intracranial hematomas are the rupture of a blood vessel leading to the collection of blood in brain tissues or empty spaces. There are several types of hematoma:

  • Epidural Hematoma: A blood clot outside of the brain and the dura but inside the skull.
  • Subdural Hematoma: A blood clot between the brain and the dura.
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding within the layers of the dura, specifically under the arachnoid layer.
  • Intracerebral Hematoma: Bleeding within the brain tissue itself caused by the rupture of a blood vessel within the brain.
  • Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the ventricles of the brain

What is a Skull Fracture?
A break or disruption in the skull can cause injury to the brain or provide an open avenue for infection or both. Some may be called:

  • A linear skull fracture
  • A basilar skull fracture
  • A contusion, or a coup-contrecoup injury

What is a Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI)
Diffuse axonal injury or DAI usually results from rotational forces or violent stopping. DAI is the result of twisting and tearing of the connections between the cells of the brain and not a direct blow.

What is a Secondary Brain Injury?
Secondary brain injury results from changes that begin at the time of the initial injury and may last for hours and days, such as:

  • Hypoxia and Hypotensions
  • Ischemia
  • Cerebral Edema – resulting in increased intracranial pressure
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Second Impact Syndrome
  • Penetrating vs. Closed BInjury
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly categorized as penetrating or closed.